Water and Earth combine to form the principle of Kapha, lending their qualities of stability, heaviness, slowness and coldness to this dosha.
The term Kapha means "mucous" and it pertains to all aqueous or liquid parts of the body. The earth element gives the body structure and stability, whilst the water element gives lubrication to the body. Kapha therefore governs functions such as the lubrication and protection of the lungs and other organs, as well as the joints. It also governs the lymphatic system, immune system, fat tissue and the senses of taste and smell.
A healthy Kapha shows itself as stamina, resilience, a good immune system, good memory, compassion, empathy and loyalty.
An excess of Kapha may manifest in conditions such as congestion, water retention, weight gain, lethargy, a feeling of heaviness, sluggish digestion, loss of appetite, growths and cysts, or emotional tendencies such as possessiveness or over-attachment.